Introduction In this NISQ (Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum) era, scientists hold much expectation for three applications of Quantum Computing: Quantum Fourier Transform-based algorithms, Grover-search-based algorithms, and simulations of quantum phenomena (as in Quantum Chemistry). In this series, we want to discuss Shor’s algorithm, the most prominent instance of the first type. Shor’s original work attracted huge attention since it showed a strong evidence that 2048-bit RSA, a widely used cryptographic protocol in the Internet communication, can be broken (Technology is switching to post-quantum cryptography though). ...